Principal Organs of United Nations Organization (UNO)

Since its inception in 1945, the UN has been involved in various activities and initiatives to address global challenges. To achieve its goals, it comprises six principal organs, each with its specific responsibilities and functions. In this article, we will delve into each of these organs of UNO and their roles in the functioning of the United Nations.

United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)

The General Assembly is the chief policy-making forum and vigilant body of the United Nations, where all member states are represented. It holds annual sessions in September, during which major concerns are discussed, and decisions are made. The General Assembly addresses matters such as the UN budget, admission of new member states, and non-binding resolutions.

  • Total members: 193
  • Two-third 2/3rd majority of members present and voting is compulsory to pass any topic of debate while only 51% to pass any resolution.
  • The president of GA is elected for a period of 1 year (changes every September).
  • Headquarter: New York City

Role and Responsibilities

  • The primary role of the General Assembly is to serve as a forum for member states to express their views on global issues openly.
  • It provides a platform for diplomatic discussions, enabling nations to voice their concerns and seek solutions collaboratively.
  • It reviews and approves the UN’s budget, ensuring proper allocation of resources for different initiatives.
  • The General Assembly adopts resolutions on various topics, promoting cooperation and establishing international norms.

6 Sub-Committee of GA

  1. Disarmament & International Security
  2. Economic & Financial
  3. Social, Humanitarian & Cultural
  4. Special Political & Decolonization
  5. Administrative & Budgetary
  6. Legal

Power of GA

  1. Elective Power
  2. Financial Power
  3. Deliberative Power

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

Security Council is the most authoritative, dynamic and skillful unit among the organs of UNO and is pledged for enduring international peace and security. It comprises of 15 members, 05 permanent members (the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, China, and France), and 10 non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for the period of two years. On the other hand, the President of SC is selected for one month on Alphabetical bases from 15 members. This UNO Organ has the power to Implementation of trusteeship council activities in appropriate and Strategic places.
Headquarter: New York City

Role and Responsibilities

  • The primary role of the Security Council is to address threats to peace and security and recommend solutions to conflicts across the globe.
  • The Security Council deploys peacekeeping forces to conflict zones to stabilize situations and facilitate peaceful resolutions.
  • It has the authority to impose economic sanctions on nations that violate international law or engage in aggressive actions.

The International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The ICJ (World Court) serves as the principal legal tribunal of the United Nations. It resolves legal controversies between nations and offers legal advice on matters referred by UNO organs and specialized agencies. The ICJ’s main function is to maintain international law and peacefully sort out conflicts. The World Court hears cases brought before it by states and issues binding judgments.
Headquarter: The Hague (Netherland)
15 Judges elected for 9 years(Re-elected as well).

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

Comprises of 54 members, ECOSOC is the principal body responsible for promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. It addresses various issues, including poverty, healthcare, education, and human rights. The main role of ECOSOC is to facilitate collaboration among nations to improve living standards and promote sustainable development worldwide. It is UN’s central platform for reflection, debate and innovative things on sustainable development and the GA selects members for three years term.
Headquarter: New York City

The Secretariat

The Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General, serves as the administrative branch of the United Nations. It plays a vital act in executing the decisions made by the General Assembly and other organs of UNO.
Headquarter: New York City

Role and Responsibilities

  • The Secretariat carries out day-to-day activities, manages resources, and supports the work of other UN organs.
  • The Secretariat provides information to member states, the media, and the public about the work and decisions of the UN.
  • It assists in mediating conflicts and negotiations between member states.

The Trusteeship Council

The Trusteeship Council, formed in 1945 by the UN charter, to supervise the management of trust territories and assure their groundwork for self-government or independence. With the achievement of its main objectives, the Trusteeship Council has suspended its operations.
Headquarter: New York City


The United Nations, with its six principal organs, plays an essential role in remitting global challenges and encouraging international cooperation. The General Assembly serves as a platform for diplomatic discussions and decision-making, while the Security Council works to maintain peace and security. ECOSOC focuses on economic and social development, and the Secretariat handles administrative tasks. The ICJ upholds international law, and the former Trusteeship Council oversaw the transition of trust territories. Together, these organs work towards a more peaceful, just, and prosperous world.

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