Why was UNO established? | List of Secretary Generals of UNO

The United Nations Organization (UNO) is a prominent intergovernmental organization dedicated to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among disputed nations, promoting international cooperation, and serving as a center for harmonizing the action of nations around the globe. It is the largest, most influential, most globally represented, and most powerful organization in the world. Additionally, Secretary Generals of UNO are appointed as head of this organization that significantly fulfills their duties time by time.

Establishment and Membership:

Established on:
                        On October 24, 1945, in San Francisco, California, United States
Total Members States:
                        193 member States
Observer States of UN: 
                        There are 2 permanent observer states:
                               1. State of Palestine on 31 Jan 2012
                                2. Holy See (Vatican City) on 6 April 1964
Headquarters of UNO:
                         New York City (NYC), USA

The idea behind UNO:

The UNO is founded in 1945 as an international organization right after the horrific event of World War II by 51 countries committed to promoting social progress, better living standards, and protecting human rights. The UNO encounters a multitude of challenges to its mission, including poverty, disease, environmental degradation, conflicts between states, human rights violations within nations, terrorism, organized crime, and the proliferation of weapons. Through concerted efforts, it strives to tackle these threats head-on.

Threats to UNO:

UNO encounters a multitude of challenges to its mission including:
   1. Threat from poverty, disease, and Environmental breakdown
   2. Conflict between states
   3. Violation of human rights within states
   4. Terrorism & Organized Crime
   5. Proliferation of weapons
Through concerted efforts, it strives to tackle these threats head-on.

Purpose of UNO:

UNO stands committed to fulfilling its purpose which encompasses:
   1. To maintain peace throughout the world
   2. To develop friendly relations among nations
   3. To help nations work together to fulfill the needs of poor people
   4. To conquer hunger, disease, and illiteracy
   5. To encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms.

Official languages of UNO:

   a. English
   b. French
   c. Russian
   d. Chinese
   e. Arabic
   f. Spanish
UNO utilizes English and French as primary communication modes within the Secretariat, while other languages play essential roles in regional commissions.
Founder of UNO:
Numerous countries contributed to establishing the United Nations Organization, but US President Franklin D-Roosevelt coined this name to describe the Allied Nations.

List of Secretary Generals of UNO:

Right after the establishment of this organization, Gladwyn Jebb served as an Acting SG (Oct 24, 1945 to Feb 1, 1946).
List of the secretaries in the office:
   1. Trygve Lie (Norway) – 2 Feb, 1946 to 10 Nov, 1952
   2. Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden) – 10 April, 1953 to 18 Sep, 1961
   3. U Thant (Burma/Myanmar) – 30 Nov, 1961 to 31 Dec, 1971
   4. Kurt Waldheim (Austria) – 1 Jan, 1972 to 31 Dec, 1981
   5. Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) – 1 Jan, 1982 to 31 Dec, 1991
   6. Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) – 1 Jan, 1992 to 31 Dec, 1996
   7. Kofi A. Annan (Ghana) – 1 Jan, 1997 to 31 Dec, 2006
   8. Ban Ki-Moon, (Republic of Korea/South Korea) – 1 Jan, 2007 to 31 Dec, 2016
   9. António Guterres (Portugal) – 1 Jan, 2017 to Present
U Thant is the longest-serving Secretary General of UNO (10 years 59 days). On the other hand, the serving term of an SG is 5 years except if it is re-appointed for the second time by the General Assembly under Article 97 of the Charter.

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